Aphids have a complex life cycle, with both winged and wingless forms of adults and a great variety in colour. When reproduction is asexual, the young aphids are born as developed nymphs. They immediately start to feed on plant sap and grow rapidly. When reproduction is sexual, the aphids lay eggs that overwinter. In greenhouses reproduction also takes place by parthenogenesis, with unfertilized viviparous females continuing to produce new generations of females. Aphids moult four times before reaching adulthood. With each moult they shed white skin, betraying their presence in the crop.
The adult potato aphid is a large, slender aphid with long, green cornicles, long legs, and a long cauda. Adults are usually green, but may also be pink or red (especially in tomato), depending on the food source. Even the winged forms can be red.
Wingless potato aphids are 1.7 - 3.6 mm long, elongated, with a dark longitudinal stripe running along the dorsal surface. In green individuals, this stripe is dark green, while in pink specimens it is dark red. This longitudinal stripe is specifically characteristic of the potato aphid and is particularly visible in the nymphs. Immatures have a light dusting of whitish-grey wax. The aphids instantly fall off the plant when touched.