Explanation of the Side effects database

The information contained in this database can be used as a guideline for the use of chemical pesticides in combination with biological crop protection and/or natural pollination. In the event of any doubt or if any information is unclear, please contact your adviser.

Only use chemicals legally authorized for use, and read the label before use. 

Side effects on natural enemies

Pesticides can have direct effects, such as killing the natural enemies or causing their non-emergence from eggs or pupae, but they can also have indirect effects, such as reduced fertility (egg laying), problems with regard to moulting, or a repellent effect. Both direct and indirect effects have been considered in the assessment of the side effects.

The data are based on a once-only application of the pesticide at the authorized dose. Higher doses and/or repeated applications can give rise to greater effects on the natural enemies and the pollinators. The agents you have selected may have a different formulation or concentration of the active substance from that of the tested product. Consequently, the effects may be different.

The effects of chemical agents on natural enemies are classified in four categories (numbered 1 to 4) corresponding with the extent to which the agent influences the capacity of the organism.  

Symbols indicating the mortality, toxicity, or reduction in control capacity:

 Not harmful to slightly harmful < 25% reduction

 Moderately harmful 25 - 50% reduction

 Harmful 50 - 75% reduction

 Very harmful > 75% reduction

If no symbol is shown, the effects are unknown. 

NB: This relates to the safety for the natural enemy, not for the person applying the agent! 

Residual effect on natural enemies (persistence)

Many agents remain harmful for a certain period after application. In natural enemies, this persistence is expressed in the number of weeks during which the agent remains harmful for the natural enemies. Only after the indicated period can the parasite or predator concerned be introduced or reintroduced successfully. The indicated period applies to a single application at the dose shown on the label. In cases of additional applications, the persistence will often be longer. If no data are presented, the persistence is unknown. The persistence applies primarily to conditions such as those found in greenhouse crops in north-western Europe. Under warmer and lighter conditions, the persistence is generally shorter. In outdoor crops, the persistence is sometimes dependent on precipitation. For some agents, the persistence period lengthens following precipitation.

Harmful and moderately harmful agents with a short persistence period can sometimes still be used for chemical corrections in hot-spots, or before the natural enemies are released into a crop. 

Application and interpretation of data

  • Soil organisms: the control capacity of soil-dwelling predatory mites and soil-dwelling nematodes is influenced primarily by irrigation or drenching with chemical pesticides. If irrigation or drenching with a pesticide is not specifically stated, the effect indicated is that of crop spraying using the agent concerned.

  • Sulphur: In the case of the evaporation of sulphur, the effect is greatly dependent on the density of evaporators, the duration of use, and the ventilation in the greenhouse.

  • Dusting: The dusting of agents hinders the development of many natural enemies and is therefore strongly discouraged.

Side effects on bumblebees

All results for side effects on bumblebees were obtained using B. terrestris. Side effects in other bumblebee species may vary. For bumblebees, four categories have been defined for the purposes of indicating the working method to be followed when using the pesticides concerned. Before covering and removing, make use of the Beehome function of the bumblebee hive.

Beehome

There are two flight holes in the hive. One of these provides the so-called Beehome function: the bumblebees can fly into the hive, but can no longer fly out. Flight in both directions is possible through the other flight hole. This system makes it possible to get the bumblebees into the hive quickly at any desired moment, if this is required due to crop protection measures. To do so, close the flight hole for two-way traffic. All bumblebees will have returned to the hive within two hours. The hive can then be fully closed and if necessary moved to a location outside the greenhouse.   

  • No action:
    The application of the agent can take place without any specific precautionary measures.
  • Cover:
    Use the Beehome function to ensure that all the bumblebees return to the hives. Carefully cover each hive, and then carry out the required pesticide application. After the crop treatment, you can remove the covering material and reopen the flight hole.
  • Remove:
    Use the Beehome function to ensure that all the bumblebees return to the hives. Next, remove the hives from the crop/the greenhouse and then carry out the required pesticide application. Return the bumblebee colonies to their original positions once the indicated period has passed (and once the crop is dry). Thoroughly ventilate the greenhouse in the meantime. 
  • Incompatible:
    This agent may not be used in combination with bumblebees.

If no symbol is shown, the effects are unknown.  

Residual effect on bumblebees (persistence)

The residual effect of an agent on bumblebees is indicated in the number of days during which the bumblebees cannot be kept in the greenhouse. Only once the indicated period has passed will the residue have broken down sufficiently, and will bumblebees suffer no adverse effects from it. If no data are presented, the persistence is unknown.

The hives should never be removed from the greenhouse for longer than three days, as this would result in some flowers not being pollinated. This would also result in a scarcity of pollen, causing the starvation of bumblebee larvae. In such cases, a restart is generally required with new hives.

The persistence applies primarily to conditions such as those found in greenhouse crops in north-western Europe. Under warmer and lighter conditions, the persistence is generally shorter. In outdoor crops, the persistence is sometimes dependent on precipitation. For some agents, the persistence period lengthens following precipitation. Bumblebees also visit neighbouring crops that may have been treated with harmful agents, potentially causing negative effects.

Respond

The database is regularly updated. If you have questions about missing data, or experiences that are clearly different from those indicated in the database, please send an e-mail to sideeffects@spam-protectkoppert.com.

Information sources

The data in this database is based on various information sources:

  • results of trials carried out by Koppert B.V.
  • experiences of Koppert employees in the field, worldwide (mainly relating to information about persistence)
  • research results from the IOBC working group 'Pesticides and beneficial organisms'
  • reports from research institutes (national and international)
  • other sources, such as the websites of the IOBC or IPM Impact
  • producers of pesticides 

Liability disclaimer

In this database, Koppert provides data to the best of its information relating to the side effects on natural enemies and pollinators. As the conditions and manner of use of pesticides are outside Koppert's sphere of influence and control, Koppert cannot guarantee that certain results will be achieved and cannot accept liability for any damaging consequences that may arise from the use of data presented in this side effects database. When using chemical pesticides, always adhere to the statutory regulations.

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