Pesticides can have (in)direct effects on natural enemies. Our side effects app tells you how harmful different pesticides are.
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Side effects on natural enemies
Pesticides can have direct effects, such as killing the natural enemies or causing their non-emergence from eggs or pupae, but they can also have indirect effects, such as reduced fertility (egg laying), problems with regard to moulting, or a repellent effect. Both direct and indirect effects have been considered in the assessment of the side effects.
Residual effect on natural enemies (persistence)
Many agents remain harmful for a certain period after application. In natural enemies, this persistence is expressed in the number of weeks during which the agent remains harmful for the natural enemies. Only after the indicated period can the parasite or predator concerned be introduced or reintroduced successfully.
Side effects on bumblebees
All results for side effects on bumblebees were obtained using Bombus terrestris. Side effects in other bumblebee species may vary. For bumblebees, four categories have been defined for the purposes of indicating the working method to be followed when using the pesticides concerned. Before covering and removing, make use of the Beehome function of the bumblebee hive.
Residual effect on bumblebees (persistence)
The residual effect of an agent on bumblebees is indicated in the number of days during which the bumblebees cannot be kept in the greenhouse. Only once the indicated period has passed will the residue have broken down sufficiently, and will bumblebees suffer no adverse effects from it. If no data are presented, the persistence is unknown.
The data in this database is based on various information sources:
Results of trials carried out by Koppert B.V.
Experiences of Koppert employees in the field, worldwide
(mainly relating to information about persistence)
Research results from the IOBC working group 'Pesticides and beneficial organisms'
Reports from research institutes (national and international)
Other sources, such as the websites of the IOBC or IPM Impact
Producers of pesticides